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      小升初英語語法時態重點

      編輯:成都新啟航家教服務有限公司  時間:2012/03/27  字號:
      摘要:小升初英語語法時態重點
      現在完成時是由助動詞 have(has)+動詞的過去分詞done構成。助動詞have說明該謂語是屬于現在時范圍。它與主語的人稱、數要保持一致。過去分詞done是主要的謂語動詞,說明句子的意義。
      2.用法
      (1)表示動作發生在過去某個不確定的時間,但對現在留下了某種影響與結果。常與just、already、yet 等副詞連用。如:
      ---Have you had dinner yet?你(已經)吃晚飯了嗎?
      ---Yes,I have. I''ve just had it. 我剛剛吃過。(強調現在我不餓了)
      (2)表示從過去某一時刻開始一直持續到現在的動作或狀態。這個動作可能剛停止,可能仍然在進行。常與for與since等表示一段時間的狀語連用。
      如:He has livedin ShangHai since 2001.
      他自從2001年就住在上海了。(可能還要繼續住下去)
      (3)表示說話前發生過一次或多次的動作,現在成為一種經驗,一般譯為漢語“過”,常帶有ever,never,twice,three times等時間狀語。
      如: I have been to Shanghai three times.我去過上海三次。
      3.結構
      1)陳述句結構:主語+have/has(not)+過去分詞+其它。have not=haven''t  has not=hasn''t.
      2)一般疑問句結構:Have(Has )+主語+過去分詞+其它。
      3)特殊疑問句:特殊疑問詞+have(has) +主語+ 過去分詞+其它。
      例如:She has already seen the film.
      She hasn’t seen the film yet.
      Has she seen the film yet?
      Yes,she has./ No,she hasn''t.
      4.現在完成時的時間狀語
      現在完成時屬于現在時范圍,故不能與過去的時間狀語連用。但是,在強調動作產生的后果與影響時,可以與一些表示不確定的時間狀語連用。有  already,yet,since,for,ever,never,just,before,up to now等。
      如:We have already finished our homework.我們已完成作業了。
      They haven''t finished their homework yet.他們還沒有完成作業。
      I have never been to the Great Wall.我從未去過長城。
      We have studied English for three years. 我們(開始)學英語已三年了。
      5.幾點注意事項
      (1)have been to與have gone to的區別:have been to表示“去過某地(現在已經回來了)”,可用于各人稱;have gone (to)表示“去某地了(說話時某人不在當地)”,常用于第三人稱,前者可與once,never,several times 等連用,后者則不能。如:They have been to Beijing twice.他們去過上海兩次。
      He has gone to Beijing . 他去上海了。
      (2)如單純表示一段時間,或強調一段時間,雖有since一詞,也不必用完成時。
      如:It is two years since his father died. =His father has been dead for two years.   他父親去世已有三年了。
      (3)終止性動詞現在完成時的否定式,已變成一種可以延續的狀態,因此可以與表示一段時間的狀語連用。
      如:I haven''t left here since 1997.自從1997年以來,我一直沒有離開過這兒?! 【氁痪殻?br /> 一、用since與for填空。
      1. Jill has been in Ireland Monday.
      2. Jill has been in Ireland three days.
      3. Mike has been ill a long time. He has been in hospital October.
      4. Margaret is in her office. She has been there 7 o''clock.
      5. India has been an independent country 1974.
      二、用所給動詞的適當形式填空。---詞形大“變態”。
      1. He (live) in Beijing since he was born.
      2. My friend, Chang Li, (buy) a new car last week.
      3. We (not hear) from them for a long time.
      4. I (not read) the book before.
      5. Mother  (make) me a new coat yesterday.
      6. I (see) him go into the hotel just now.
      答案見下期
      上一期答案:
      A、用動詞的適當形式填空。
      1) It_was__( be ) Ben’s birthday last Friday.
      2)  __Are___they  going  to_sweep___ ( sweep ) the floor on Sunday? No,they__aren’t___.
      3) We all__had___ ( have ) a good time last night.
      4) Jim __is___going to plant( plant) trees tomorrow.
      5) She likes__reading___newspapers,but she __read___a book yesterday. ( read ).
      6) He __is playing__football now,but they __played__basketball just now.( play ) .
      7) I _am__going to watch( watch ) a cartoon next Monday.
      B、按要求改寫句子。
      1) My father came to the shop just now.(改為否定句)
      My father___didn’t  __ __come__ to the shop just now.
      2)I’m going to get up at 6:30 tomorrow.(改一般疑問句)
      __Are_ __you__ __going__ to get up at 6:30 tomorrow?
      3) Their teacher told them a story yesterday.(對劃線部分提問)
      _What_ __did_ their teacher___tell__them yesterday?
      4)She is going to listen to music after school.(對劃線部分提問)
      __What__ __is___ she__going___ __to___ ___do__ after school?
      5) David and Liu Tao did their homework together a moment ago.(改為一般疑問句)_Did__ David and Liu Tao_do_ __their_ homework together _just_   _now_.
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